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Analysis of MSE and MIT using 1H-NMR 2. Digital photographs from the wound assay 2. Colony forming ability of treated cells (clonogenicity assay) 2.
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DNA repair is an active process as everyday millions of cells are exposed to various metabolic activities and environmental factors and the majority of this exposure leads to structural damage of the DNA. The
higher the severity of DNA damage the higher the possibility of ineffective DNA repair kratom withdrawal depression which could lead to either the cells undergoing senescence (irreversible state of dormancy) cell death (apoptosis) or permanent alterations of DNA structure and function leading to kratom or phenibut irregular cell division that could ultimately lead to carcinogenesis (Friedberg et al 2006). More than 130 human genes have been found to be involved kratom addiction treatment in DNA repair mechanisms (Wood et al 2001). As soon as the damage has been indentified specific molecules are brought to the site of damage and induce other molecules to bind and form a complex for kratom pills amazon repair. Most of the time if small areas of DNA are affected such as in nearly all oxidative damage (e. ROS) as well as single strand breaks the damage will be repaired by DNA base excision pathway (BER). BER is the most active repair process which allows specific recognition of and excision of damaged DNA bases (Friedberg et al 2006).
The Ames test is widely accepted worldwide and remains one of the tests for predicting genotoxicity potential. Mouse lymphoma tk gene mutation assay (MLA) is one of the tests specifically to evaluate mutagenesis in mammalian cells. Clive and Spector 1975; Clive white vein thai kratom et al 1979). Since then the test was gradually optimised until it is widely acceptable for genotoxicity testing. CFSAN 2006; Applegate et al 1990; Sawyer et al 1989 1985; Moore et al 1985).